recv, recvfrom, recvmsg - receive a message from a socket


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/socket.h>

     int recv(int s, void *buf, int len

     int recvfrom(int s,  void  *buf,  int  len  struct  sockaddr
     *from, int *fromlen));

     int recvmsg(int s, struct msghdr *msg, unsigned int flags


     The recvfrom and recvmsg are used to receive messages from a
     socket,  and may be used to receive data on a socket whether
     or not it is connection-oriented.

     If from is  non-nil,  and  the  socket  is  not  connection-
     oriented,  the  source  address of the message is filled in.
     Fromlen is a value-result parameter, initialized to the size
     of  the  buffer associated with from, and modified on return
     to indicate the actual size of the address stored there.

     The recv call is normally used only on  a  connected  socket
     (see  connect(2))  and  is  identical to recvfrom with a nil
     from parameter.  As it is redundant, it may not be supported
     in future releases.

     All three routines return the length of the message on  suc-
     cessful  completion.  If a message is too long to fit in the
     supplied buffer, excess bytes may be discarded depending  on
     the  type  of  socket  the  message  is  received  from (see

     If no messages are available at the socket, the receive call
     waits  for  a  message  to arrive, unless the socket is non-
     blocking (see fcntl(2))  in  which  case  the  value  -1  is
     returned and the external variable errno set to EWOULDBLOCK.
     The receive calls normally return any data available, up  to
     the requested amount, rather than waiting for receipt of the
     full amount requested; this  behavior  is  affected  by  the
     socket-level  options  SO_RCVLOWAT and SO_RCVTIMEO described
     in getsockopt(2).

     The select(2) call may be used to determine when  more  data

     The flags argument to a recv call is formed by or'ing one or
     more of the values:
             The MSG_OOB flag  requests  receipt  of  out-of-band
             data  that  would not be received in the normal data
             stream.  Some protocols place expedited data at  the
             head  of  the  normal data queue, and thus this flag
             cannot be used with such  protocols.   The  MSG_PEEK
             flag  causes  the  receive  operation to return data
             from the beginning  of  the  receive  queue  without
             removing  that  data from the queue.  Thus, a subse-
             quent receive call will return the same  data.   The
             MSG_WAITALL  flag  requests that the operation block
             until the full request is satisfied.   However,  the
             call  may still return less data than requested if a
             signal is caught, an error or disconnect occurs,  or
             the  next data to be received is of a different type
             than that returned.

             The recvmsg call uses a msghdr structure to minimize
             the  number  of  directly supplied parameters.  This
             structure has the  following  form,  as  defined  in

             struct msghdr {
                  caddr_t   msg_name; /* optional address */
                  u_int     msg_namelen;   /* size of address */
                  struct    iovec *msg_iov;     /* scatter/gather array */
                  u_int     msg_iovlen;    /* # elements in msg_iov */
                  caddr_t   msg_control;   /* ancillary data, see below */
                  u_int     msg_controllen; /* ancillary data buffer len */
                  int  msg_flags;     /* flags on received message */

     Here  msg_name  and  msg_namelen  specify  the   destination
     address  if the socket is unconnected; msg_name may be given
     as a null pointer if  no  names  are  desired  or  required.
     Msg_iov and msg_iovlen describe scatter gather locations, as
     discussed  in  readv(2).   Msg_control,  which  has   length
     msg_controllen,  points  to a buffer for other protocol con-
     trol related messages or other miscellaneous ancillary data.
     The messages are of the form:

             struct cmsghdr {
                  u_int     cmsg_len; /* data byte count, including hdr */
                  int  cmsg_level;    /* originating protocol */
                  int  cmsg_type;     /* protocol-specific type */
             /* followed by
                  u_char    cmsg_data[]; */

     As an example, one could use this to learn of changes in the
     data-stream   in   XNS/SPP,  or  in  ISO,  to  obtain  user-
     connection-request data by requesting a recvmsg with no data
     buffer provided immediately after an accept call.
     Open file descriptors are now passed as ancillary  data  for
     AF_UNIX  domain  sockets,  with cmsg_level set to SOL_SOCKET
     and cmsg_type set to SCM_RIGHTS.

     The msg_flags field is set on return according to  the  mes-
     sage  received.   MSG_EOR  indicates end-of-record; the data
     returned completed a record (generally used with sockets  of
     type SOCK_SEQPACKET).  MSG_TRUNC indicates that the trailing
     portion of a datagram was discarded because the datagram was
     larger  than the buffer supplied.  MSG_CTRUNC indicates that
     some control data were discarded due to lack of space in the
     buffer  for ancillary data.  MSG_OOB is returned to indicate
     that expedited or out-of-band data were received.


     These calls return the number of bytes received, or -1 if an
     error occurred.


     EBADF   The argument s is an invalid descriptor.

             The socket is associated with a  connection-oriented
             protocol  and has not been connected (see connect(2)
             and accept(2)).

             The argument s does not refer to a socket.

             The socket is marked non-blocking, and  the  receive
             operation would block, or a receive timeout had been
             set,  and  the  timeout  expired  before  data  were

     EINTR   The receive was interrupted by delivery of a  signal
             before any data were available.

     EFAULT  The receive  buffer  pointer(s)  point  outside  the
             process's address space.


     4.4BSD (these function calls first appeared in 4.2BSD).


     fcntl(2), read(2), select(2),