Arrange for what is called a "shell account" on some Unix system. Most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) can provide this service. Use the terminal emulator program and a modem to dial in. Learn the basic Unix commands. If the system has Emacs installed, or you can persuade the system administrator to install it, this is your second chance to learn it. It is probably best to learn it at this point, because administering a Unix system (the next stage) will call for you to edit files. Therefore, I include here my suggestions for learning both Unix and Emacs.
When you arrange for a shell account, or set up a new account on your own machine, you will have to decide on a username and a password. Your username will also be used in your email address, so try to find something short and memorable. Your password is important, and should be hard to guess. That usually means at least six characters, including at least one non-alphanumeric character.
When a Unix system is ready for you to log in, it normally displays a prompt ending with "login:". At this point you should type in your username. It will then prompt you for your password, and will turn off command echoing while you type it in.
The command to finish a terminal session is
To learn about a command, use the
man command to type its
manual page ("man page" for short). For example, to learn more about
cp command by typing
man cp. Of course, this helps only if
you know or can guess the command name. However, each man page has a
line near the beginning with the command name and a
short description of what the command does. You can search a database
of these lines using the command
apropos. Thus, typing
working will list lines that include the word "working". Here's what
that command prints here:
The numbers in parentheses are sections of the manual. User commands are in section 1. Functions called from within programs are in sections 2 and 3. Commands used mostly by the system administrator are in section 8. You can find out more about the on-line manual with the command
cd (n) - Change working directory pwd (n) - Return the current working directory Cwd (3pm) - get pathname of current working directory chdir (2) - change working directory fchdir (2) - change working directory get_current_dir_name (3) - Get current working directory getcwd (3) - Get current working directory getwd (3) - Get current working directory pwd (1) - print name of current/working directory rcsclean (1) - clean up working files
Under Unix, commands normally accept options starting with a minus sign rather than the forward slash used under DOS. In a path, directory names are separated by forward slashes rather than backward slashes. Both operating systems have a "standard input", by default the keyboard, and a "standard output", by default the display screen. You can redirect the standard input using "<", and redirect the output using ">". You can use the output from one command as the input of another by separating the two commands with "|". This is called the "pipe" symbol.
The program that interprets your command is a "shell". Under DOS,
COMMAND.COM is the shell. Most Unix shells are decendents of either
the Bourne shell
sh or the C shell
csh. The shell most
commonly used with Linux is the "Bourne again shell", or
It has several features which can reduce the need for typing. You can
use the cursor up key key to bring previous commands to the command
line. The cursor will be at the end of the command. You can use
cursor left and right to move the cursor within the command, and edit
it with Emacs style commands (control-D or DEL to delete the character
to the right, et cetera). Also, you can insert the last word in the
previous command with ESC-. (escape period). You can learn about
these and other commands from the bash man page, in the section
If a program gets "stuck", here is a sequence of keystrokes to try:
logoutcommand. You can instead kill the process, as follows: Run
pswith no arguments. It will list a header line, then one line for each of your processes. The first item on each line is the process id number, or PID. The command used to start the process (or at least the beginning of it) appears at the end of the line. If the PID were 117, you would kill the process with the command
kill -9 117.
Guido@ibogfs.cineca.it has written an excellent guide
to Linux for (former) DOS users, the DOS2Linux mini-HOWTO. You can
probably find it where you found this document, or else at
You can find general Unix information, including manual pages for several systems at http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/man_pages.html
There is a tutorial entitled "Beginning Unix and the C Shell" at http://www.eng.hawaii.edu:80/Courses/C.unix/page-03.html.
You can get general help from http://www.nova.edu/Inter-Links/UNIXhelp/TOP_.html or http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/unix.html
You can find a list of books on UNIX at http://www.eskimo.com/~cher/eskimospace/booklist.html.
When you start Emacs, you will normally list on the command line one
or more files which you will be editing. To edit a file named
"foobar" with Emacs, you would enter the command
If you enter the command
emacs with no arguments, GNU Emacs will
print out an introduction which includes the first five commands you
need to learn, approximately as follows:
Type C-h for help; (`C-' means use CTRL key.) Type C-x u to undo changes. Type C-h t for a tutorial on using Emacs. Type C-h i to enter Info, which you can use to read GNU documentation. To kill the Emacs job, type C-x C-c.
Note the way Emacs documentation refers to key combinations. C-h means hold the control key down while typing "h". You will also run into key combinations like M-v, which is pronounced "meta v". The tutorial suggests holding down the key labeled "edit" or "meta" then typing "v". I have never run across a keyboard with those keys, so I always use the escape key instead: typing "Esc" then "v" (two separate keystrokes). After using Emacs for a long time, I discovered that under Linux, the left "Alt" key works like a "meta" key. You may want to use this. On the other hand, some of these key combinations may conflict with your screen reader or communications program under DOS. Using the escape key is more reliable.
Three of the above commands start with C-h, which may be treated as a backspace by your communications program. In that case, you may access the help command using the long form M-x help. Conversely, you may find that pressing the backspace key starts the help command. This issue is treated in the Emacs FAQ, which is available within Emacs using C-h F or M-x help F. Look for the question "Why does the `Backspace' key invoke help?". In the mean time, you can end the help session with the command C-g. (This is the keyboard-quit command, which cancels any prefix keys you have typed.)
You may also find that C-s and C-q are unavailable because they are used for flow control (XON and XOFF). You should look at the question "How do I handle C-s and C-q being used for flow control?" in the FAQ. For the particular command C-x C-s (save buffer), you may substitute the command C-x s (save-some-buffers). The former command saves the current buffer, while the latter asks the user about each of the modified buffers.
Note in particular the command "C-h t" to start the Emacs tutorial. That is one the first things you will want to try. I will only make a couple of comments on the tutorial. To move the cursor, it gives the four commands C-f, C-b, C-p, and C-n (for forward, back, previous line, and next line). These commands always work. However, with a properly installed Emacs, the regular arrow keys should also work. Try them out and use them if you are more comfortable with them. Similarly, you may be able to use home, end, page down, and page up keys in place of the standard commands C-a, C-e, C-v, and M-v. Finally, all Emacspeak commands begin with C-e. Once you start using Emacspeak, you will have to type it twice to get the end of line function. (The "End" key should be unaffected by Emacspeak.)